heat pump

Summary

Heat Pump Working Principal

Heat pump is a device that transfers the heat energy of a low-level heat source to a high-level heat source. It is also a new energy technology that attracts much attention around the world. It is different from the familiar mechanical equipment that can increase potential energy-"pumps"; heat pumps usually obtain low-grade thermal energy from air, water, or soil in nature, perform work through electricity, and then provide people with available energy for use. High-grade thermal energy.
The working principle of the heat pump system is the same as the working principle of the refrigeration system. To understand the working principle of the heat pump, we must first understand the working principle of the refrigeration system. The refrigeration system (compression refrigeration) is generally composed of four parts: a compressor, a condenser, a throttle valve, and an evaporator. Its working process is: low temperature and low pressure liquid refrigerant (such as Freon), first absorb heat from high temperature heat source (such as room temperature air) in the evaporator (such as air conditioner indoor unit) and vaporize into low pressure vapor. The refrigerant gas is then compressed into a high-temperature and high-pressure vapor in the compressor, and the high-temperature and high-pressure gas is cooled and condensed into a high-pressure liquid in the condenser by a low-temperature heat source (such as cooling water). Throttling elements (capillary, thermal expansion valve, electronic expansion valve, etc.) are throttled to low temperature and low pressure liquid refrigerant. This completes a refrigeration cycle. The performance of a heat pump is generally evaluated by the cooling coefficient (COP coefficient of performance). The cooling coefficient is defined as the ratio of the heat transferred from a low temperature object to a high temperature object to the required power. Generally, the cooling coefficient of a heat pump is about 3-4, that is, the heat pump can transfer 3 to 4 times the heat energy of its own energy from a low temperature object to a high temperature object. Therefore, a heat pump is essentially a heat-enhancing device. When it works, it consumes a small amount of electrical energy, but it can extract 4-7 times the electrical energy from environmental media (water, air, soil, etc.). This is also the reason why heat pumps save energy. Europe, America and Japan are racing to develop new heat pumps. It has been reported that the cooling coefficient of the new heat pump can be 6 to 8. If this value is adopted, it means that energy will be used more efficiently. The popularity of heat pumps will also increase dramatically. Ground source heat pump is a kind of heat pump. It uses the earth or water as a cold and heat source to air-condition the building in winter and cool in summer. Use very little electricity to maintain the temperature needed in the room. In winter, 1 kilowatt of electricity sends 4-5 kilowatts of heat from soil or water into the room. In summer, the process is reversed, and the heat in the room is transferred to the soil or water by the heat pump, so that the room gets cool air. And the energy obtained underground will be used in winter. This cycle starts and ends, linking architectural space with nature. Get the most comfortable living environment at the least cost.

Heat Pump Types

According to the type of heat source, it is divided into: air source heat pump, water source heat pump, ground source heat pump, dual source heat pump (combination of water source heat pump and air source heat pump) and so on.
Air source heat pump
During the operation of the air source heat pump, the evaporator absorbs heat from the ambient thermal energy in the air to evaporate the heat transfer working medium. After the working medium vapor is compressed by the compressor, the pressure and temperature rise. When the tube is connected, the condenser condenses into a liquid, transferring heat to the water in the air source heat pump water storage tank.
Working medium of heat pump
The air-source heat pump heat transfer medium is a special substance with a boiling point of minus 40 ° C and a freezing point of minus 100 ° C under normal pressure. This substance is liquid when it is cold, but it can be easily evaporated into gas, and vice versa. In actual operation, the evaporation limit temperature of the heat transfer working medium in the air source heat pump is about minus 20 ° C, so the ambient temperature of 5 ° C is also "hot" for such a low temperature, even snow temperature, such as 0 ° C. In contrast, it is also hot, so it can still exchange some thermal energy.
Water source heat pump
Shallow water sources on the earth's surface (generally within 1000 meters), such as groundwater, surface rivers, lakes, and oceans, absorb the considerable radiant energy from the sun into the earth, and the temperature of the water sources is generally very stable. The working principle of water source heat pump technology is: by inputting a small amount of high-grade energy (such as electrical energy), the low-temperature heat energy is transferred to the high-temperature level. The water body is used as a heat source for heating by a winter heat pump and a cold source for air conditioning in summer. That is, the heat in the building is "taken out" in summer and released into the water body. Because the temperature of the water source is low, the heat can be efficiently taken away to achieve summer The purpose of cooling the building's interior; in winter, it is to "extract" heat energy from the water source through the water source heat pump unit and send it to the building for heating.
Ground source heat pump
Ground source heat pump is a kind of high-efficiency energy-saving air-conditioning equipment that can use heat and refrigerate by using shallow geothermal resources (also called ground energy, including groundwater, soil or surface water, etc.). The ground source heat pump realizes the transfer from low temperature heat energy to high temperature heat energy by inputting a small amount of high grade energy (such as electricity). The ground energy is used as a heat source for heating by the heat pump in winter and as a cold source of cooling in summer. That is, in winter, the heat from the ground energy is taken out and the temperature is increased to supply indoor heating. In summer, the indoor heat is taken out and released to The ground can go. Ground source heat pumps usually consume 1kWh of energy, and users can get more than 4kWh of heat or cold.
High temperature air energy heat pump
The high-temperature air energy heat pump literally refers to a heat pump (ie, a high-temperature drying heat pump) whose heating water temperature is higher than 60 ° C (ie, high-temperature hot water) or whose air temperature can reach above 80 ° C. Compared with the conventional heat pumps on the market today, the temperature of conventional hot water is generally below 55 ° C, and the new generation of high-temperature air heat pumps can produce high-temperature hot water of about 85 ° C, which can be used for electroplating and pasteurization Butchery, glass cleaning, printing and dyeing industries.

Heat Pump System

Heat pumps provide a more energy-efficient option than boilers and air conditioners in climatic conditions that require moderate cooling or heating. Just like your refrigerator, a heat pump uses electricity to transfer heat from a cool space to a warm space, making cool spaces cool and warm spaces warm. During the heating season, the heat pump transfers heat from the cool outdoors to the warm indoors, and during the cooling season, the heat pump transfers heat from the cool indoors to the warm outdoors. All these operations have a heat pump at work. Because the heat pump transports heat instead of generating heat, it can replace general air conditioners and cost less than traditional boilers or air conditioners. They collect heat from outdoor air, water, or ground soil, and use it indoors. This is their tooling principle.
The most common type of heat pump is an air source heat pump, which transfers heat between your house and the air outside the house. Compared to resistance heating (such as boilers and electric heaters), today's heat pumps can reduce electricity use by about 40%. The high-efficiency heat pump dehumidification effect is also better than standard central air conditioning, which reduces energy consumption in summer and improves cooling comfort. Air source heat pumps have been used in almost all warm regions of the country, but until recently, they have not been used in regions experiencing long periods of low temperature. However, in recent years, with the advancement of air-source heat pump technology, it can also provide a reliable heating option in cold regions.
For homes without gas pipelines, air source heat pumps also have an option, called household air-cooled heat pumps. In addition, a special air-source heat pump, called the "Inverse Carnot Cycle Chiller", produces hot and cold water, which can also be used in a heating mode with a radiant floor heating system.
The working principle of the water source heat pump and the air source heat pump are very similar, except that the circulation pipe of the water source heat pump is submerged in the water body, and its depth will not freeze in winter and not too hot in summer. The refrigerant solution in the circulation tube circulates normally, in which case it absorbs or releases heat in the water source. Common water source heat pump systems include groundwater and surface water systems. In Hubei, groundwater source heat pumps are generally used.
Ground source heat pumps use the soil outside your facility as a heat source and as a heat release area. At a depth of 5 meters underground in Wuhan, the temperature throughout the year remains basically between 19 and 20 degrees. This just provides a continuous heat source, where heat can be easily transferred and stable, reliable and efficient.
Although the installation cost of the ground source heat pump is relatively high, the operation cost of the ground source heat pump is relatively low due to the relatively constant ground or water temperature. Ground source heat pumps have some main advantages, they can reduce energy consumption by 30% -60%, easy to control temperature and humidity, stable and reliable, and flexible and suitable for many homes.

Heat Pump Installation & Cleaning

The air energy heat pump uses the energy in the air to generate heat energy, which can provide different hot water, heating and cooling needs for the whole family at a large amount of water, high water pressure and constant temperature 24 hours a day, and at the same time, it can complete the above requirements with minimal energy consumption.
Host installation
(1) Do not install in places with high-frequency facilities, so as not to affect the normal use of control functions;
(2) Do not install in places with oil fume, so as to prevent oil fume from attaching to the air-side heat exchanger fins and affecting the energy saving effect;
(3) The unit can be installed on the external wall, roof, balcony, and ground; the air outlet should avoid the windward direction;
(4) The installation foundation or mounting bracket must be solid and firm, which should be able to bear the weight of the unit's operation; in areas where strong winds (typhoons) occur or when the unit requires fixing, M10 X 100 expansion bolts should be used as fastening for the fixed unit Components to prevent the unit from shaking or generating unnecessary mechanical noise to ensure that the unit runs smoothly;
(5) If a rain shed is installed, the air-side heat exchanger of the unit should be prevented from affecting the heat exchange due to the external environment, and care should be taken to ensure that its heat absorption and heat dissipation are not hindered; (6) The condensate of the unit should be drained to the sewer by drain hoses Or drainage ditch;
(6) During the installation, the circulation and heat exchange of the intake and exhaust air should be avoided. At the same time, a certain clear space should be reserved at the intake and exhaust ports. If there is not enough space, an exhaust duct must be installed to lead out the cold air in time;
(7) It is recommended that rubber feet should be added to the feet when installing the unit to prevent shock and noise.
Water tank installation
1. The insulated water tank should be installed within 2.5 meters from the host. It can be installed outdoors with a heat pump such as a balcony, roof, floor, or indoors. The water storage tank must be installed on the floor, with 10cm feet underneath. The installation site is solid and must bear a weight of 500Kg. Do not hang on the wall.
2. There are valves near the water storage tank, as well as the water pipe and hot water pipe interface.
Note: The power socket must be reliably grounded!
Water connections:
1. Connect one end of the check valve / pressure relief valve to the water pipe and the other end to the water inlet of the water tank. Note: The water outlet of the water storage tank must be connected to a PPR pipe of more than 1.5 meters.
2. Fill with water: Open the tap water inlet valve and open the tap in the hot water pipe. Start filling until the overflow of the water tap is full, and close the water tap. Check for leaks in stored water to ensure that they do not leak. Note: Before using the plug-in power supply for the first time, make sure that the water tank is filled with water.
Maintenance and cleaning methods
Air source heat pump water heaters often check whether the power supply of the unit and the wiring of the electrical system are firm, and the electrical components are not operating abnormally. If necessary, repair and replace them in a timely manner.
1. The water filter installed outside the machine should be cleaned regularly to ensure that the water quality in the system is clean to avoid the unit from being damaged due to the filter being dirty.
2. Do not stack debris around the unit to avoid blocking the air inlet and outlet. The unit should be kept clean and dry and well ventilated.
3. Users should pay attention when using and maintaining the air energy heat pump unit: all safety protection devices in the unit are set before leaving the factory, and do not disassemble or adjust by themselves.
4. Frequently check whether the make-up water, water tank safety valve, level controller and exhaust device of the water system are working properly, so as to prevent air from entering the system and reducing the amount of water circulation, which will affect the heating capacity of the unit and the reliability of the unit operation.
5. Frequently check the working conditions of the various components of the unit, check whether there is oil pollution in the pipe joints and inflation valves in the machine, and ensure that there is no leakage of refrigerant in the unit. 6. Keep the unit clean and dry and well ventilated. Clean the air-side heat exchanger every year to maintain a good heat exchange effect.
7. Check whether the pumps and waterway valves are working properly and whether the water pipes and water pipe joints are leaking.
8. For the cleaning of the main unit condenser, we recommend using a hot phosphoric acid solution with a concentration of 50 ° C-60 ° C and a concentration of 15% to clean the condenser every two years. Start the main unit's own circulating water pump for 3 hours, and finally clean it with tap water 3 times. Ready to take over during cleaning. Do not clean the condenser with corrosive cleaning fluid.
9. If the shutdown time is long, drain the water in the unit's pipeline, cut off the power, and put on a protective cover. When running again, check the system thoroughly before turning it on.
10. When the actual water temperature of the air source heat pump water heater is not consistent with the value displayed on the control panel of the unit, check whether the temperature sensing device is in good contact.
11. The water tank needs to be cleaned after a period of use (usually 3 months, depending on the local water quality).

Heat Pump Inverter

The air energy heat pump not only works similar in function and function to air conditioners, but also has similar development paths. After the fixed-frequency technology matures, it gradually develops into frequency conversion.
What is a variable frequency air heat pump? Compared with ordinary air-energy heat pumps, the frequency-converted air-energy heat pump has an additional frequency converter. This frequency converter can change the frequency of air-energy equipment, so that the air-energy heat pump can adapt to various complex climate environments with different frequencies.
Most of the traditional air energy heat pumps work under 220V, 50Hz and 380V, 50Hz voltage conditions. They control heating (on / off) of the compressor to heat and cool. However, since the power supply frequency does not change and the speed of the compressor with fixed-frequency air energy does not change, so when the temperature reaches the set temperature, the compressor will stop working and vice versa. And the frequency conversion air energy heat pump, through the variable frequency controller to change the operating frequency, according to the outdoor environment, water temperature, etc. at any time to adjust the compressor, fan power supply frequency and speed to ensure indoor comfortable temperature. Frequency conversion air energy heat pump is like a "fan" that runs continuously for 24 hours and can be automatically adjusted. When the weather is cold, the "fan" turns a little faster, increasing the heating capacity and ensuring that the indoor temperature is not affected by the weather. When the weather is hot, the air can be rich, and the "fan" can be turned a little slower to ensure the indoor temperature. The advantages of air source heat pump inverter are mainly several points.
1. It is more adaptable to the external environment. It can automatically adjust the operating frequency of the heat pump, and the indoor temperature always stays within a certain range. It will not cause a large difference in indoor temperature due to the outdoor environment, accurate temperature control and greater comfort.
2.Variable frequency air heat pump always keeps running, no excessive noise will be generated due to frequent start of the unit. In addition, when the heat pump is running at low frequency, the noise is relatively low, and it is more quiet and comfortable.
3. Low-carbon environmental protection: R410A refrigerant that meets EU environmental protection standards is used to avoid damaging the ozone layer. As the global greenhouse effect becomes more and more serious, air-conditioning non-environment-friendly refrigerants (such as R22 / R123) are gradually eliminated, and R410A, as a superior green environmental-friendly refrigerant, has no prohibition restrictions. At the same time, through DC frequency conversion technology, compared with traditional refrigerants, it reduces the pollution caused by the amount of refrigerant to the atmosphere and achieves more environmental protection.
4. Wide operating range: The product can be operated at an ambient temperature of -30 ℃ ~ 45 ℃. Electric heating is not required for winter heating, and it can be used normally.
5. High temperature effluent: High-efficiency compressor with enthalpy and enthalpy is used. According to the end-type requirements of users, the maximum effluent temperature can reach 60 ° C.
6. Safety: Eliminates the hidden dangers of flammable, explosive, electric shock, gas poisoning, etc. in ordinary heating system, without electric auxiliary heating, safe and reliable water and electricity separation.
7. Intelligent control: According to the principle of automatic control, the operation is simple and convenient. One-button startup, the switch setting can realize single-day timing and cycle timing, night comfortable sleep mode setting, power failure memory function, and quickly reach the set temperature. , Keep the load dynamically matched and run smoothly.
8. DC inverter compressor: Adopting a high-performance DC inverter compressor, the efficiency is greatly improved, the overall energy efficiency ratio is improved, the energy consumption is lower, and you save more electricity costs. DC frequency conversion adjustment technology: It can automatically adjust according to parameters such as indoor ambient temperature, set temperature, outdoor ambient temperature, etc., to avoid additional power loss caused by frequent start and stop of the compressor. Compared with fixed frequency machines, the energy efficiency is increased by 30%.

Heat Pump Production Standard

On December 3, 2001, the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine and Inspection and Quarantine and Administration of the People's Republic of China issued Announcement No. 33 of 2001, "The First Catalogue of Products for Compulsory Product Certification" (hereinafter referred to as the Catalogue), which contains 132 products in 19 categories. Among them, the 7th category of the catalogue "Household and Similar Use Equipment" 0703 is the "air conditioner", and the air energy heat pump air conditioner is classified as the air conditioner, and must be 3C certification. According to the "Compulsory Certification Management Regulations", as of May 1, 2003, for products listed in the catalog, products that have not obtained the compulsory product certification certificate and are not affixed with the China compulsory certification mark must not be shipped, imported, or sold.
China Compulsory Product Certification is referred to as CCC certification or 3C certification. It is a statutory and compulsory safety certification system, and it is also a widely used internationally adopted basic method of protecting consumer rights and protecting consumers' personal and property safety. Products that have entered the catalog but have not obtained a compulsory product certification certificate and are not affixed with the China Compulsory Certification Mark may not be shipped, imported, or sold.
Air source heat pumps are classified as air conditioners in the certification. Requires "for domestic and similar purposes; those that are dangerous to the public, including those used by non-electrical professionals in shops, offices, hotels, light industries, farms, etc." 1p, 1.5p hot water machine, 3p, 5p, 8p heating machine, etc., must be 3C certification. And the local government bidding documents basically require "products to pass 3C certification." Therefore, the 3C certificate can be said to be the "birth certificate" and "customs clearance certificate" for the listing of home appliances. For heat pump companies, if any of the products they produce have not obtained 3C certification, they will not be able to go on sale, let alone participate in bidding. For consumers, the country's 3C certification is a secure "firewall". For those heat pump household products that have not been certified but are secretly sold, once the security cannot be guaranteed, then it is a "disaster" for many families.
As for international standards, the performance test of heat pump equipment and systems that have a large international influence is currently related to the standard series of heat pumps prepared by the American Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineering Society and the American Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Society. Although American standards can be used as a reference for other national standards, due to differences, regional codes and standards must conform to local characteristics. For example, the voltage and frequency of the US power grid (110V / 60Hz or 120V / 60Hz) are significantly different from those of China's power grid system, so the safety standards require greater differences. The United States established standards on the operating performance of heat pumps as early as 1948, and has since been developed and improved. Although the European industry has established standards for air conditioning devices, the regulations on heat pumps were not clear at the time of formulation. Most of the standards formulated in China are based on international standards.
China's standards are divided into four levels: national standards, industry standards, local standards and enterprise standards. National standards are formulated and approved by the State Council's standardization administrative director; industry standards are formulated and approved by the relevant administrative department of the State Council, and reported to the standardization administrative department of the State Council and the relevant administrative department of the State Council for the record; local standards are formulated and approved by the provincial government's standardization administrative department, and reported to the standardization administrative department of the State Council and relevant administrative departments of the State Council for the record;enterprise standards are formulated by the enterprise, approved and published by the corporate legal representative or the authorized leader authorized by the legal representative, and the department authorized by the corporate legal representative agrees to manage. The enterprise product standards shall be filed with the local standardization administrative department and relevant administrative departments.

Heat Pump Supplier in China

As an important renewable energy source, ground source heat pumps have been widely and successfully applied throughout the country. Especially in some economically developed regions, the development situation of the ground source heat pump market is even more pleasing.
In 2003, manufacturers and sales markets of ground source heat pumps began to enter a stage of rapid growth. At present, Guangdong has become the most important production base and consumer market for China's heat pump industry. According to incomplete statistics, there are currently about 197 heat pump companies in Guangdong, mainly located in Guangzhou, Dongguan, Foshan, Zhuhai, Zhongshan, Shenzhen, and other places. Among them, there are 67 in Guangzhou, 51 in Foshan, and 26 in Dongguan.
The number of heat pump enterprises in Guangdong accounts for more than half of the country, and more than 80% of large-scale enterprises are gathered here. It is estimated that the production capacity of Guangdong's heat pump industry accounts for at least 65% of the country's total. In addition, Guangdong's heat pump industry is in a period of rapid growth, which has caused a large amount of capital injection and a surge in the number of enterprises, not only manufacturers, but also many suppliers. Authoritative experts predict that due to the broad prospects of the heat pump industry, many home appliance companies and other capital will soon enter the heat pump market in the near future, and the capacity of Guangdong's heat pump industry will expand rapidly in the future.
Such as the well-known FANTASTIC, stablished in 2002, FANTASTIC is one of the largest manufacturers of swimming pool heat pumps and house heating/cooling heat pumps and hot water heat pumps and DC inverter heat pump, ground source heat pump and other kinds of heat pump products in China. With more than 500 professional staffs and engineers focusing on heat pump manufacturing and technologies for more than 20 years for the international market, FANTASTIC owns many unique technologies and patents, and products are certified CE, ROHS, ETL, SAA, WATERMARK, STANDARD MARK, C-TICK, ISO9001 and so on.
FANTASTIC factory has a complete heat pump industrial manufacturing chain from product cabinet to a complete heat pump, not only abides by ISO9001 International Quality Standard, but also owns full-computer automatic monitoring production lines. All production processes are supervised and controlled by computer with sophisticated processing equipments, and the use of advanced production management mode, in order to ensure the high and stable quality of FANTASTIC products.
FANTASTIC provides high-end users integrated energy-saving solutions and products including Swimming Pool Heat Pumps, Swimming Pool Dehumidifiers, Room Heating& Cooling Heat Pumps, Residential and Commercial Hot Water Heat Pumps, Industrial and Agriculture Dryer Heat Pumps to the customers from more than 72 countries in the world now.
FANTASTIC has a strict ISO9001 heat pump production quality control management system and comprehensive high-tech inspection equipments to ensure the good quality. Whats more, FANTASTIC owns full-computer automatic intelligent devices system with sophisticated processing equipments and advanced production management mode to supervise and control every detail of the production process strictly to ensure the high and stable quality of FANTASTIC products.
air source| geothermal| wholesale|

Heat Pump for Sale

At present, many people are wondering whether to use a heat pump. Originally, they wanted to use the device, but it may be that the price of the heat pump is reasonable when we look at the quote online and immediately dispel our idea of using a heat pump system. In fact, this not only depends on the initial installation price, we must also consider the later operating costs.
The first is the preliminary price, which mainly includes the sum of the equipment price and the installation cost. Generally speaking, the heating area of our home is about 90-120 square meters. The heat pump unit used is generally 3-5P unit. The unit price is about 50,000 to 100,000 yuan. Due to different brands, the model and functional parameters of the units produced by each manufacturer are different, so the price will definitely be different when it for sale, plus other installation costs, Material cost. At present, it seems that the investment in the early stage is relatively large, but the operating costs of the later stage need to be considered. What is the general price of heat pump heating? Ground-source heat pumps can both heat and air-condition, and are both environmentally friendly and energy-saving. However, whether ground-source heat pumps are economically competitive is still a very critical issue. Because of the many factors involved, different regions, different energy structures, and prices will directly affect the economics of ground source heat pumps. Here we only discuss the economics of ground source heat pumps by comparing them with traditional heating and air conditioning methods.
Comparison of initial investment. The initial investment includes all investment items from cold and heat sources to the pipe network to indoor terminals. The initial investment of the heat pump is higher than that of the boiler, but from the total initial investment, because the ground source heat pump can be used for heating and cooling, one machine is dual-use, and one investment is used throughout the year, saving investment in winter heating. Lower than the total investment of the boiler plus air conditioning system.
Compared with heating costs, coal boilers have the lowest heating costs, followed by ground source heat pumps, natural gas boilers, and oil boilers. Using the ground source heat pump as a benchmark to compare the heating costs of various schemes, coal boilers are about 30% lower than ground source heat pumps, while natural gas boilers are about 40% higher and oil boilers are about 70% higher.
In recent years, various public swimming pools, private swimming pools, baths, and SPAs have increased. Therefore, people's requirements for energy saving and environmental protection of swimming pool water temperature heating and constant temperature equipment have become higher. Many indoor and outdoor standard swimming pools, recreational swimming pools, jacuzzi, saunas and other facilities are considered to require facilities with constant temperature function, put into use in winter. When the outdoor temperature is low, the pool water emits a lot of heat to the outside, which reduces the temperature of the pool water. Makes the swimming pool heat pump products widely used in it. If you want to understand the energy saving and cost of the swimming pool water temperature heating constant temperature equipment, you can refer to the following parameters.
The following are the economic benefits and technical parameters of heat pump hot water systems and other conventional heating methods.
1. Use air energy heat pump to heat 250 tons of water, the annual operating cost is: 9.28 / ton × 250 tons × 365 days = 846800 yuan / year
2. The annual cost savings of using heat pump water heaters than electric water heaters and solar energy (based on 250 tons):
The cost of using an electric water heater is: 39.12 yuan / ton × 250 tons × 365 days = 3569700 yuan / year
The cost of using a solar water heater is: 39.12 yuan / ton × 250 tons × 120 days = 1173600 yuan / year
We can get:
Save costs than electric water heaters: 3569700 yuan / year-846800 yuan / year = 2722900 yuan / year
Save costs than solar energy: 1,173,600 yuan / year-846,800 yuan / year = 326,800 yuan / year
It can be seen that the heat pump hot water solution is more economical than other conventional heating solutions.

Heat Pump Hot Water System

The heat pump hot water system is a hot water supply system that uses air, groundwater, and surface water as low-temperature heat sources and water as a heat transfer medium, and uses steam compression heat pump technology to heat domestic hot water. The basic system solutions for heating water using heat pumps are direct heating, indirect heating, and hybrid heating. Conventional heat pump water heaters, including ground-source heat pumps, water-source heat pumps, and air-source heat pumps, are several types of mechanical compression heat pumps. As air-conditioning technology, their applications have become widespread. It is used in heat pump hot water system. The heat pump hot water system is divided into air heat pump hot water system, water source heat pump hot water system, geothermal heat pump hot water system and mixed curved heat type heat pump hot water system. The domestic and foreign research progress of heat pump hot water system and its advantages and limitations are also introduced in detail.
Heat pump hot water technology is a hot water supply method based on heat pump technology. It first appeared in the 1950s. After the energy crisis, the heat pump hot water system has been greatly developed, and a certain market size has been formed in many developed countries. In the United States, heat pump water heaters have developed rapidly since their introduction in 1988 and currently occupy about 38% of the water heater market. Approximately 3 million similar devices are now in operation in Europe and the United States. In hotels, schools, enterprises and institutions in Southeast Asia, Australia and some other countries, 75% of 60 ° C hot water is supplied by air source heat pump water heaters.
The so-called heat pump is to use water or air as a heat source. The use of a refrigerant (absorbs and releases heat through its state change in the heat pump, and transfers heat through its circulation, such as ammonia, Freon, lithium bromide, etc.) reverses the movement of heat. A mechanical device that moves heat from low to high temperatures. Heat pumps can be divided into different types of heat pumps according to their use, heat output, heat source type, and driving work form. For example, according to the driving work form, they can be divided into compression heat pumps, absorption heat pumps, steam jet heat pumps, and thermoelectric heat pumps.
The connection of heat pump technology with water supply and drainage has formed the intersection of two disciplines, namely heat pump hot water technology. The heat pump system takes a wide range of heat. When energy is taken from natural cold and heat sources, different types of cold and heat sources will have different effects on the performance of the heat pump unit, which depends on the characteristics and applicability of different cold and heat sources.
Various natural cold and heat sources have their advantages and limitations. Therefore, various factors should be comprehensively considered for different application conditions in different regions to determine the best cold and heat source type. In the cold and hot summer regions of central and southern China, in cold climates, if there are available sea, lakes, pools or artificial lakes near air-conditioned buildings, the surface water will May be the ideal heat source for heat pump hot water systems.
At present, a common method for using a heat pump for hot water production is a heat pump hot water machine, that is, a single heat pump hot water unit supplies hot water to a single room or a household. Conventional heat pump water heaters have become popular in high-energy countries such as Europe and the United States, and even have a 16% market share in the water heater market in developing countries such as South Africa.

Heat Pump Application

At present, the heat pump products on the market mainly include air source heat pumps, water source heat pumps, heat pump water heaters, absorption heat pumps and the like. According to statistics from China Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Industry Association, the output value of China's industrial and commercial heat pump products exceeded 53 billion yuan in 2016; and in the domestic room air conditioner market, most products are also heat pump type, accounting for about 70% of the total output.
1. Air source heat pump unit
Air source heat pump is a heat pump air conditioner that absorbs heat from the air for heating. It has a wide range of applications and flexible installation and use. As the application of low temperature air source heat pump units matures gradually, the application scope and area of ​​air source heat pumps will continue to expand in the future. The air source heat pump unit mainly includes: air source unit air conditioner, air source multi-type air conditioner unit, air source roof air conditioner unit, air source ducted air conditioner unit, air-cooled chiller and other products.
2. Heat pump water heater
The heat pump hot water machine transfers the heat of the low-grade heat source to the water that needs to be heated to realize the equipment for making hot water. In recent years, the heat pump water heater has made rapid development. With the active promotion and suggestions of relevant organizations such as the Association, the high-efficiency energy-saving air-source heat pump hot water machine was included in the country in June 2012; the scope of subsidies for energy-saving products benefiting the people has promoted the application of heat pump hot water machines at the national level. In October 2013, the “Energy Efficiency Limit Values and Energy Efficiency Ratings for Heat Pump Hot Water Machines” was implemented for the first time, driving the industry's energy efficiency upgrade and product technology advancement. Under the guidance of national policies, the market size of heat pump water heaters will further expand in the future. More and more users in domestic and industrial applications will adopt this energy-saving and efficient hot water equipment.
3. Water source heat pump unit
Compared with air source heat pump units, water source heat pump units are heat pump air conditioners that use water / soil as a heat source for heating. The heat sources can be surface water such as rivers, lakes, and groundwater and soil. Groundwater and soil-source heat pumps occupy a large share of these products. Under the guidance of some special policies, groundwater sources and soil-source heat pumps have experienced a relatively rapid development period in the past more than ten years. However, due to the difficulty of recharging water sources and the possible pollution of groundwater bodies due to the existence of groundwater-source heat pumps In recent years, many provinces and cities have introduced policies to limit the use of groundwater-type water-source heat pumps, which has led to a gradual decrease in the application of groundwater-type water-source heat pumps. In addition, the heat balance treatment of soil source heat pumps and possible changes in the geological environment that affect the ecological balance, coupled with the constraints imposed by the high-density environment of buildings in China, have also caused the lack of kinetic energy in the growth of the application of soil source heat pumps.
4. Absorption heat pump unit
As the shortage of national power supply is resolved, the application of absorption chiller units in the air-conditioning field has gradually decreased, while the market share of absorption heat pump units in the industrial field has shown an increasing trend. This is mainly absorption heat pump units Applicability in the field of industrial heat recovery and good energy saving results from new market expansion. The power generation industry is the main field of waste heat recovery applications of absorption heat pumps in recent years. The main source of electricity is still related to coal-fired power generation. However, compared with the cycle heat pump unit of the vapor compressor, the absorption heat pump equipment is relatively large, the operating cost of the heat pump for gas and fuel is relatively high, and the environmental pollution of the exhaust gas of the fuel is still serious. The use of renewable energy continues to increase, the proportion of new coal-fired power plants is gradually decreasing, and the technical transformation of existing thermal power plants is gradually completed.

Air Source Heat Pump Application

Air source heat pump is an energy-saving device that uses high-level energy to make heat flow from low-level heat source air to high-level heat source. It is a form of heat pump. As the name implies, a heat pump is like a pump that can convert low-level thermal energy (such as heat contained in air, soil, and water) that cannot be directly used into high-level thermal energy that can be used, thereby saving some high-level energy (such as coal, gas, oil, etc.). , Electricity, etc.).
Air source heat pump has the following characteristics :
(1) The air-source heat pump system combines the cold and heat sources. There is no need to set up a special refrigerating machine room or boiler room. The unit can be placed on the roof or the ground arbitrarily without occupying the effective area of ​​the building. The construction and installation are very simple.
(2) The air source heat pump system has no cooling water system, no cooling water consumption, and no cooling water system power consumption. In addition, many cases of Legionella infection caused by cooling water pollution have been reported. From the perspective of safety and health, considering the air source heat pump also has obvious advantages.
(3) Since the air source heat pump system does not require a boiler, the corresponding boiler fuel supply system, dust removal system and flue gas discharge system, the system is safe and reliable, and there is no pollution to the environment.
(4) The air source heat pump cold (hot) water unit adopts a modular design without the need to set a standby unit. The computer automatically controls the running process to adjust the unit's operating state to adapt the output power to the working environment.
(5) The performance of the air source heat pump will change with the outdoor climate.
(6) In places where outdoor air temperature is low in northern China, an auxiliary heater is required due to insufficient heat supply from the heat pump in winter.
Application problem
Winter temperatures in China's cold regions are low and the climate is dry. The calculated outdoor temperature for heating is basically -5 to -15 ° C, and the average outdoor relative humidity in the coldest month is basically between 45% and 65%. The use of air-source heat pumps in these areas has less severe frost formation. Therefore, the frost problem is not the biggest obstacle to the use of air source heat pumps in these areas in winter. However, the following problems restrict the application of air-source heat pumps in cold regions.
(1) When the required heat is relatively large, the heating capacity of the air source heat pump is insufficient.
(2) The reliability of the air-source heat pump is poor in cold areas.
(3) In low temperature environments, the energy efficiency ratio (EER) of air-source heat pumps will drop rapidly.
Air source heat pump water heater is a heat pump water heater that uses air as a low-temperature heat source to obtain domestic hot water. The air source heat pump water heater is a device for making hot water by consuming part of the electrical energy and transferring the heat in the air to the water. In recent years, CO2 heat pump water heaters have been studied at home and abroad. [1] Document [3] pointed out that under the condition of evaporation temperature of 0 ° C, heating the water from 9 ° C to 60 ° C, the COP value of the CO2 heat pump hot water system can reach 4.3. When the surrounding air is used as the heat source, the average annual operating heating supply COP value can reach 4.0, which can save 75% of energy compared with traditional electric heating or coal-fired boilers.

Water to Water Heat Pump Application

The working principle of the water to water heat pump unit is to transfer the heat in the building to the water source in summer; in winter, it extracts energy from a relatively constant temperature water source and uses the heat pump principle to raise the temperature through air or water as a refrigerant and send it to the building In. Water to water heat pumps usually consume 1kW of energy, and users can get more than 4kW of heat or cold. The water to water heat pump overcomes the shortage of frosting of the outdoor heat exchanger of the air source heat pump in winter, and has high operating reliability and heating efficiency. In recent years, it has been widely used in China.
Features
(1) Water to water heat pump is a renewable energy utilization technology.
Water to water heat pump is a heating and air-conditioning system that uses the solar energy resources stored on the earth's water bodies as cold and heat sources for energy conversion. The available water bodies include groundwater or rivers, rivers and lakes on the surface and oceans. So, the water-source heat pump uses a clean renewable energy technology.
(2) The water to water heat pump has high operating efficiency, low cost and energy saving.
The water temperature available to the water to water heat pump unit in winter is 12 ~ 22 ° C, which is higher than the outdoor air temperature in winter, so the evaporation temperature of the heat pump cycle is increased, and the energy efficiency ratio is also improved. Compared with electric heating, a well-designed water to water heat pump unit can reduce electricity consumption by more than 70%.
(3) The water to water heat pump operates stably and reliably.
The temperature of the water body is relatively stable throughout the year, especially the groundwater, which fluctuates much less than the fluctuation of the air, and is a good source of heat and cold for heat pumps. Therefore, the heat pump unit operates reliably and stably, and there are no difficult problems such as winter defrosting of the air source heat pump.
(4) The environmental benefit of water to water heat pump is remarkable.
The water-source heat pump unit operates without any pollution, and can be built in the residents, without burning, no smoke, no waste, no need to pile up fuel waste, and do not need to transport heat over long distances. (5) One machine is versatile and has a wide range of applications.
The water to water heat pump system can be used for heating, cooling, and domestic hot water. One machine can be used for multiple purposes. One system can replace two sets of boilers and air conditioners. Especially for buildings that have both heating and cooling requirements, water to water heat pumps have obvious advantages. Not only save a lot of energy, but also reduce the initial investment in equipment.
(6) The problem of available water sources.
The water to water heat pump can theoretically use all water resources. In fact, in actual engineering, the cost of different water resources is quite different. So whether there is a suitable water source in different regions has become a key to water to water heat pump applications. Whether or not a suitable water source can be found becomes a limiting condition for using a water to water heat pump, and the water source requirements must meet a certain temperature, water volume and cleanliness.
(7) Geographical structure of water layer.
For the use of water recharge from underground, the geological structure used must be taken into consideration to ensure that suitable water sources can be found by drilling wells under economic and reasonable conditions, and water recharge should be maintained.
(8) Economics of water to water heat pump investment.
Water to water heat pumps have higher operating efficiency and lower costs, but compared with traditional heating and cooling methods, their investment economics will be different under different demand conditions. According to relevant information, the economical comparison of the water to water heat pump chiller and heater unit, air source heat pump, lithium bromide direct-fired engine, water cooling chiller unit and fuel oil boiler is the smallest.

Introduction of Residential Heat Pump

As a kind of renewable energy equipment driven by electricity, the heat pump obtains low-grade energy in the environmental medium and waste heat and provides high-grade heat energy that can be used. For each energy consumed by the heat pump, it can obtain 3 times or more heat. It greatly improves the efficiency of energy use and is a highly efficient and energy-saving clean energy product. In addition, the use of heat pump technology for heat recovery and the use of different technologies to make full use of waste heat sources can effectively save a lot of energy resources for the country. The heat pump can take into account both summer cooling and winter heating and hot water production, which is very useful in homes.
There are many air energy heat pumps for house, such as the following
1. Comparison of solar water heaters: Solar water heaters are very effective when there is sufficient sunlight, and the water temperature is high. In case of haze, rain or snow, solar water heaters can only be heated by electricity. The domestic air energy heat pump will not be affected by the weather and seasons. It can use air conversion at any time to provide hot water. Air is everywhere!
2. Comparison of electric water heaters: Electric water heaters are heated by electric heating rods and are directly heated in water. The domestic air heat pump heats the water temperature by absorbing the heat in the air. In terms of energy saving, air-energy heat pumps are far more energy efficient than electric water heaters. In terms of safety, the air energy heat pump transfers the heat after compression and heating to the water tank for heating, so it is isolated from water and electricity.
3. Compare gas water heaters: It is well known that gas water heaters produce carbon dioxide and other gases, which is not good for global environmental protection. The domestic air energy heat pump does not produce any toxic and harmful gases. In today's concept of energy saving and emission reduction, it is a truly energy-saving and environmentally friendly water heater.
4. Air source heat pump unit: The air source heat pump is a heat pump air conditioner that absorbs heat from the air for heating. It has a wide range of applications, not only in industry, but also in homes. Flexible installation and use. As the application of low-temperature air-source heat pump units matures gradually, the application range and area of ​​air-source heat pumps will continue to expand in the future. The air source heat pump unit mainly includes: air source unit air conditioner, air source multi-type air conditioner unit, air source roof air conditioner unit, air source ducted air conditioner unit, air-cooled chiller and other products.
According to the current experience of domestic heat pump applications, according to the user's various needs for heating, hot water and refrigeration and air conditioning, combined with the residential characteristics, climate and environmental changes, and the advantages of energy saving and environmental protection of the heat pump, the system and end are comprehensively renovated , Providing suitable comprehensive technical solutions has great energy saving value and potential. The road to clean heating in the future will require overall planning and management. Renewable energy will be selected as the heat source of heat pumps according to local conditions. Attention and promotion of the comprehensive utilization of various energy sources will be made. Air, sewage, seawater, river and lake sources, waste heat Appropriate combined use with waste heat, solar energy, etc., overcomes the shortcoming of a single heat source, thereby fully improving the comprehensive integration efficiency of heating and cooling, and achieving the best energy saving benefits.

Swimming Pool Heat Pump

With the development of our country's economy and the improvement of people's living standards, people's awareness of fitness and health has increased. Swimming is not just a sports competition, more and more people like swimming and fitness. In recent years, various public swimming pools, private swimming pools, baths, and SPAs have increased. Therefore, people's requirements for energy saving and environmental protection of swimming pool water temperature heating and constant temperature equipment have become higher and higher. At present, many indoor and outdoor standard swimming pools, recreational swimming pools, jacuzzi, saunas, etc. are considered to require facilities with constant temperature function, put into use in winter. When the outdoor temperature is low, the pool water emits a lot of heat to the outside, which reduces the temperature of the pool water. The swimming pool heat pump products have been widely used in them. In fact, there are many uses for heat pumps, such as swimming pools, jacuzzis, hot springs, and heat pump pool heaters.
The swimming pool heat pump is because the general water temperature of the indoor swimming pool is maintained at 26 ° C ~ 28 ° C, and the air temperature is maintained at 28 ° C ~ 30 ° C (the air temperature is 1 ° C ~ 2 ° C higher than the water temperature). For the lighting needs, glass walls or glass are mostly used structure. Because the pool water contains a large amount of chlorine, as the water in the pool continues to evaporate, the air humidity is large. The humid air causes a large amount of condensation on the wall or glass, which will inevitably cause strong corrosion to the interior decoration of the building. In addition, because humid air contains a large number of viruses, bacteria, and other elements that reduce air quality, it can cause difficulty in breathing. Therefore, the temperature and humidity control of indoor swimming pools has received increasing attention.
The indoor pool constant temperature dehumidifying heat pump unit confiscates and keeps the indoor air at a constant temperature while dehumidifying the indoor air. In order to save energy, the heat of the air is fully recycled during the operation of the equipment. The recovered heat heats the pool air or the pool water through a regeneration system to ensure that the indoor air is at a constant temperature. Condensate generated by temperature removal can be discharged directly to the outdoors or recycled into the pool to supplement the pool water. Considering the indoor air quality, the constant temperature heat removal pump unit is equipped with fresh air processing and exhaust functions. Considering the operation cost of the constant temperature heat removal pump unit, in the spring and autumn season, a large amount of fresh air with low humidity can be used to adjust the humidity of the indoor air to reduce operating costs.
In order to prevent the circulating air from affecting the service life of the equipment, the key components and sheet metal structures of the equipment are anti-corrosive during the manufacturing process, and the compressor, power distribution cabinet and control system are isolated from the wind system. The water in the jacuzzi and hot springs can also be heated with a heat pump.

How to install the water circuit of the heat pump unit?

Installation of water pipes
1) The resistance of the external water pipeline of the unit should be minimized. Measures such as reducing the position of the elbow and reducing the diameter can be adopted.
2) During the connection of the water pipeline, ensure that the entire pipeline system is clean and free of dirt such as rust and slag to prevent clogging of the pipeline.
3) After the water pipe connection is completed, a leak test should be performed, and the joints of each thread interface should be checked to ensure that there is no leakage in the entire pipeline system, and then the insulation layer is wrapped.
4) After all pipelines are connected and leak test is normal, thermal insulation cotton with a thickness of more than 20mm must be wrapped to reduce heat loss in the pipeline and prevent freezing of waterways in winter.
5) An expansion water tank should be set at the highest point of the waterway. The water level in the expansion water tank should be at least 0.5 meters higher than the highest point of the waterway.
6) Check the water flow of the water system to ensure that the water flow is normal. If there is a water flow failure, you must check the installation of the water system. Never short the water flow switch at will to ensure the protection of the unit when the system is empty.
7) An automatic exhaust valve should be set at the highest point of the waterway to avoid air trapped in the pipeline and affect the working effect of the unit.
8) A thermometer and a pressure gauge should be installed at the water inlet and outlet pipes of the unit to facilitate monitoring and inspection during system operation.

How to choose the place where the heat pump unit is installed?

1) The unit can be installed on an unclosed balcony or external wall; at the same time, please take waterproof measures.
2) Provide sufficient space for installation and maintenance.
3) The air outlet of the unit is unobstructed, and strong wind cannot reach it.
4) The installation place is dry and well ventilated, avoiding places where flammable and explosive gases are easy to leak and environments with strong corrosive gases.
5) Easy to install pipelines and electrical wiring.
6) The bearing surface is flat and can bear the weight of the unit. The unit can be installed horizontally without increasing vibration and noise.

The difference between ultra-low temperature air source heat pump and ordinary air source heat pump

Ordinary air energy heat pump
Limited operating range and heating operating range: ambient temperature -5 ° C ~ 21 ° C, when the ambient temperature is lower than -5 ° C, the heating capacity of the heat pump unit will be seriously attenuated, and the compressor's working capacity will decline, and it will not be available Hot water supply. When the ambient temperature drops severely in winter, the decrease in the working capacity of the unit will cause the water temperature to not be effectively raised, and the required domestic hot water cannot be effectively provided. The energy efficiency in winter is only about 1.5, the power consumption increases, and the heating capacity decreases severely.
Ultra-low temperature air source heat pump
1. Ultra-wide operating range, no matter where you are, you can have a comfortable experience all year round.
Heating operation range: ambient temperature -25 ° C ~ 21 ° C;
Refrigeration operation range: ambient temperature 21 ° C ~ 43 ° C;
2. Super high outlet temperature
It can normally provide a water temperature of up to 65, and even in cold winter, it can easily provide 50 domestic hot water.
3. Ultra-high energy efficiency ratio
The thermal energy efficiency ratio is up to 3.8 (tested according to the national standard working conditions), and the refrigeration energy efficiency ratio can also reach 3.1.

What is a fixed frequency air energy heat pump?

China's power grid voltage is divided into 220 volts, 50 Hz and 380 volts, 50 Hz. Air energy working under this voltage condition is collectively referred to as fixed-frequency air energy (most of these products are currently on the market). Constant-frequency air can be heated (cold) by controlling the operation of the compressor (simply speaking, turning the compressor on or off). Because the power supply frequency cannot be changed, the speed of the compressor with fixed-frequency air energy will basically not change. For example, the compressor will stop working when the temperature reaches the set temperature, and will start to work on the contrary. To adjust the temperature. In this way, the temperature of the water will be very unstable, cold and hot, and consume more power between opening and closing, and frequent starting will have a great impact on the service life of the compressor.

What is a variable frequency air heat pump?

Variable frequency air energy can change the fixed frequency of 50 Hz to the operating frequency of 20 Hz to 120 Hz through the frequency conversion controller. It can adjust the compressor and fan power frequency at any time according to the environment and water temperature, adjust the compressor and fan speed to achieve stepless speed regulation, so as to achieve reasonable use of energy. Frequency conversion air can lower the current when the system is started, it will not have an impact on the power grid and the electricity meter, and can reduce the interference to other indoor appliances in use. The voltage adaptation range reaches 120V-270V, which solves the problem of affecting the work due to the instability of the voltage. The wider the frequency change range, the more it can ensure non-stop operation under most working conditions, and the more obvious the energy saving advantage.

Compared with fixed-frequency air-energy heat pumps, what are the advantages of variable-frequency air-energy heat pumps?

Heating (cold) fast low temperature heating effect is good
Energy efficient, low noise, long life
Temperature control accuracy and high comfort
More environmentally friendly with R40A refrigerant

What is the difference between a ground source heat pump and a water source heat pump?

The ground source heat pump and water source heat pump are conceptually mainly aimed at the system, that is, the ground source heat pump system and the water source heat pump system, not the host, in other words, the ground source heat pump host and the water source heat pump host are the same Host. The ground source heat pump and water source heat pump we refer to are the sources of water on the water side of the host source. If it is a ground source heat pump, then his water source comes from the closed loop of underground buried pipes. The water on the source side is heat exchanged with the underground through underground buried pipes without material exchange. This is what we usually call geothermal heat pump, the method of marking in Europe and America is geothermal heat pump.

What's wrong with the delayed start of the heat pump unit?

During the operation of the unit, such as manual shutdown or fault shutdown, if the unit needs to be restarted, it must wait for 3 minutes before it can be started. This is a protection setting for the compressor and is not a malfunction.

How should the heat pump unit be protected against frost?

In cold winter weather, when the unit is powered on and standby, it sometimes runs the circulating water pump automatically, and even automatically starts the compressor for a short period of time. These are to prevent the waterway from freezing due to low temperature. It is not a malfunction.
In the winter environment, if the unit is no longer used, please keep the unit's power on, and never turn off the power, otherwise the unit will not be able to run the anti-freeze protection mode, which may cause waterway freezing and unit damage. If it is not used for a long time, please drain all the water in the system water channel before cutting off the power supply of the unit.

What precautions should be taken during the operation of the heat pump?

1) Please always keep the environment around the air inlet and outlet of the unit clean, and do not block the air inlet and outlet channels to avoid affecting the heat exchange efficiency of the unit.
2) The setting of water temperature should be comfortable, try not to set too high water temperature, otherwise it will cause excessive waste of electric energy and overload operation of compressor, which may affect the service life of the unit.
3) In any case, if you hear abnormal noise and excessive vibration of the unit operation, please contact your dealer or after-sales technician immediately.
4) Please refer to the instruction manual or contact your after-sales technician to resolve any problems during the operation of the unit. Do not attempt to disassemble or repair the unit by yourself, otherwise it may cause danger.
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